all drugs have side effects



1. Mark questions
What is an inducer in Lacoperon?
Mention initiation and termination codon?
What are jumping genes?
Define transcription?
2. Mark questions
What is a Cistron, Muton and Recon?
Differentiate between codon and anticodon?
Name 4 nucleosides of DNA?
What are introns and exons?
Draw a neat labeled sketch of tRNA?
5. Mark questions
-Explain DNA replication .
-Explain Griffith’s experiment to prove that
DNA is the genetic material
1. Mark questions
Expand BT
Name the organisms used in making golden rice
what is hybridoma?
2. Mark questions
What are the hazards of Genetic engineering?
What are monoclonal antibodies?
What are the uses of transgenic animals?
Draw a labeled diagram of pUC 18
What is gene therapy? mention the types
What are plasmids?
What is the outcome of HGP?
5. Mark questions
-Discuss the steps involved in recombinant DNA technology.
-Discuss Plant tissue culture technique.
-Write a note on the steps involved in DNA finger printing technique.
-Discuss the steps involved in Golden rice production..

1. Mark questions
What are Idioblasts? , What are Stone cells?
What is a Callose?, What is Cork?
What is Tyloses? What are Annual rings?
What is endarch xylem?
2. Mark questions
Differentiate between tracheids and trachea
Differentiate between heart wood and sap wood
Draw a labeled diagram of Collenchyma.
5. Mark questions
-With a help of neat labeled diagram explain parenchyma
- Explain intrastelar activity of secondary growth
1. Mark questions
What is vein loading? Define plasmolysis?
2. Mark questions
-Draw a neat labeled diagram of a Hydathode.
- What is Osmosis ? What is its importance to the plants?
-Define water potential and mention its components
-Differentiate between transpiration and guttation
5. Mark questions
Explain transpiration pull of Ascent of Sap.
Explain Munch mass flow hypothesis.
1. Mark questions
What are CAM plants?
Name the enzyme which fixes carbon dioxide in the plant.
What is squiggle bond ?
2. Mark questions
State the law of limiting factors
Draw a neat labeled diagram of chloroplast
What is lactic acid fermentation?
What is the significance of photolysis of water.
Write the schematic representation of Cyclic photo phosphorylation
5. Mark questions
Explain Terminal oxidation.
Differentiate between oxidative phosphorylation and photo phosphorylation
Give the schematic representation of Kreb’s cycle.
Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
1. Mark questions
What is bolting?
What is vernalisation?
What is dormin?
2. Mark questions
Give the commercial application of etherphon
What is parthanocarpic fruit? Name the hormone involved.
What are auxins ? mention two applications
Name the plant hormones involved in tissue culturing.
Monocot stem or Monocot root ,Thistle funnel experiment,


I. Genetics.

1 Mark Questions
What do you mean by “Pure line”?
What is the Chromosome compliment of Klinrefelters syndrome?
Define multiple Alleles.
What is Genotype?
2 Mark Questions
What are Holandric genes? Give examples.
Differentiate between Homozygous and Heterozygous conditions.
What is a universal donor and why it is called so?
What are the expected children in a marriage between a carrier woman and a color blind man?
Write a note on Rh factor.
State 2 laws of Mendel.
What is Co-dominance?
5 Mark Questions
-Describe the laboratory techniques of blood grouping and add a note on antigens and antibodies present in human blood.
-What is Sex linked inheritance? Explain with respect to Color blindness in Man.
-What is incomplete dominance? Explain with an example.

II. Biodiversity
1 Mark Questions
Expand IUCN (WCU)
Define Deforestation.
Define species richness.
What are Hot Spots?
2 Mark Questions
What is Species biodiversity? Explain.
What is IPR? On what basis it is granted?
What are the causes for the loss of soil fertility?
What are Endangered Species? Give examples.
Define threatened species and list out few species of Karnataka.
What is a Biosphere Reserve? Mention its zones.
5 Mark Questions
-Define Wild Life? Discuss the conservation methods.
-Discuss the Anthropocentric causes of -Biodiversity depletion.
III. Eco System Sustainability:-
1 Mark Questions
Name the first bio sphere reserve of India.
What is TEK
What is mulching?
What are green house gases?
What are CFCs?
What is nuclear winter?
What are ODS (ozone depleting substances)?
What are the causes of Global warming?
2 Mark Questions
Write a note on 2 methods of rain water harvesting.
What is pollution? Mention two air pollutants
What is global warming? Mention its two effects
What is biosphere reserve? What are its zones?
Differentiate between in-situ and ex-situ preservation.
Mention the causes for ozone depletion. List the effects
What is soil erosion? Mention two methods to control it
Mention the causes for Acid rains? List the effects

IV. Immunology:-
1 Mark Questions
What is inflammation?
What are NK cells?
What are memory cells?
2 Mark Questions
Define immunity. Mention the types.
Draw the structure of an antibody and label the parts.
List the differences between T and B lymphocytes.
5 Mark Questions
What are non specific body defences? Mention the role of NK cells and interferons.

V. Human Physiology:-
1 Mark Questions
Define Homeostasis?
What is a blue baby?
What are kidney stones?
What are meninges?
What is cardiac cycle?
Mention the function of Enterokinase.
What is oxyhemoglobin?
Give 2 symptoms of Asthma.

2 Mark Questions
-What is ADH? Mention its function.
-What are the methods of combating the menace of drug abuse?
What are hallucinogens ?Give an example.
-Mention the functions of hormones of
-Draw a neat labeled diagram of villus
-Give the schematic representation of blood
-What is MI?
-List 4 differences between Arteries and Veins.
-List the functions of medulla oblongata.
-What is Chloride shift?
-Write a note on Augmentation (Tubular secretion).
-Write a note on Pulmonary circulation.
-What is a pace maker?
-Write a note on Parkinson’s disease.

5 Mark Questions
-Draw neat labeled diagram of the Human heart.
-Write a note on exchange of gases with in the body (Note: write both external as well as internal respiration)
-Write a note on Gastric digestion.
-Explain double circulation in humans. Add a note on its significance.
- Draw a neat labeled sketch of Human Digestive system.
-Explain the digestion of proteins in human body.
-What is reflex action ? write a note on the components of reflex arc.
-With the help of a neat labeled diagram describe origin and conduction of Heart beat.
-What is dialysis? Explain the types
-Draw neat labeled diagram of the Human respiratory system and add a note on Breathing.
-Write a note on Carbohydrate digestion.
-Draw a labeled sketch of C.S. Human Brain.

VI. Developmental Biology & Human Reproduction:-

1 Mark Questions
What are gamones?
Name the gameto kinetic factor.
Expand AIDS.
What is implantation?
What is menstrual cycle?
Name the pregnancy hormone.
Name the hormone which helps in ovulation.
Name the causative factor of Gonorrhoea.
2 Mark Questions
-Name two derivatives of endoderm.(read all the derivatives of three germ layers)
-List the important differences between sperm and
the ovum.
-Draw a labeled diagram blastula of frog.
-What is Chemotaxis ?
-Mention the symptoms of Syphilis.

5 Mark Questions
-With the help of neat labeled diagram explain the structure of Gastrula of Frog.
-Explain the Structure of a typical Sperm with the help of a labeled sketch.
-With the help of simple sketches , explain Cleavage in Frog.
-What is Contraception? List the methods.
-With the help of simple diagrams explain the process of fertilization.

Structure of a multi polar Neuron.
Haversian canal system.
Histology of Testes.
Histology of Liver lobule.
Histology of Small Intestine.
Conduct a test for Proteins.
Read all the disorders each for 2 marks only

The components of culture medium used in tissue culture
1. Agar – 0.6 to 1.0 conc.
2. Sucrose – Carbon and energy source
3. Vitamins and Amino acids like glycine
4. N, K, Ca, Mg and Co, Mo, Cu, Zn etc.
5. Auxins and Cytokinins

Muhammed Roshan farouqui

Everything you thought you knew about learning is wrong

In a recent article on Wired, Robert Bjork, the director of the UCLA Learning and Forgetting Lab, outlined some important points about learning and how our best perceived ways of learning is flawed.

Should you focus one skill at a time ?

People tend to try to learn in blocks, Bjork said. Mastering one thing before moving on to the next.

Bjork recommends “interleaving”. Instead of spending full hour working on single task, such as a tennis serve, you mix in a range of skills like backhands, volleys, overhead smashes, and footwork.

This creates a sense of difficulty, Bjork said. And people tend not to notice the immediate effects of learning.

Bjork believes that although you may not make appreciable leap in one skill immediately, but over time, the sum of these small steps is much greater than the sum of the leaps you would have taken if you’d spent the same amount of time mastering each skill in its turn.

Bjork explains that successful interleaving allows you to “seat” each skill among the others. “If information is studied so that it can be interpreted in relation to other things in memory, learning is much more powerful,” he said. There’s one caveat: Make sure the mini skills you interleave are related in some higher-order way. If you’re trying to learn tennis, you’d want to interleave serves, backhands, volleys, smashes, and footwork — not serves, synchronized swimming, European capitals, and programming in Java.


Do you study in the same place everyday?

Your study location matters. Prof. Bjork believes that studying in one place is great as long as you are required to recall your memory in the same place. Instead, studying in multiple places like the dorm, a different room at home, library etc. will condition your brain to recall information just about anywhere.


Do you revise too quickly?

Bjork says that if you study, wait and then study again, the longer the wait, the more you’ll have learned after this second study session.

When we access things from our memory, we do more than reveal it’s there. It’s not like a playback. What we retrieve becomes more retrievable in the future. Provided the retrieval succeeds, the more difficult and involved the retrieval, the more beneficial it is.

What is important here is the concept of “spacing”. Students benefit from starting early such that there is more time to learn, revise and practice complicated lessons and also space them for enhanced learning.


Do you spend time taking notes while you should be listening?

Many students take notes during classroom sessions while the teacher explains a theory or a concept.

Along these lines, Bjork also recommends taking notes just after class, rather than during — forcing yourself to recall a lecture’s information is more effective than simply copying it from a blackboard. You have to work for it. The more you work, the more you learn, and the more you learn, the more awesome you can become.

Finally, Bjork says

Forget about forgetting, People tend to think that learning is building up something in your memory and that forgetting is losing the things you built. But in some respects the opposite is true. See, once you learn something, you never actually forget it.

Please share your thoughts on the topic and what in your opinion works best.

For Laptitude,

Tanveer Farouqui

(Researcher- Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Technology)

Low self-esteem ?

Low Self-Esteem ?

Low self-esteem has an impact on every part of your daily life. It makes you withdraw form normal activities. If you feel that you are lesser than others , others will see the same in you as you exhibit. On the contrary if you have good self esteem and feel worth being around, others pick up the same. So please think and ACT NOW.

Ten Methods To Overcome Low Self-Estee

1. Speak Up: Your own voice is great, your idea is good and you have a right to express. Just Speak up, and do not be afraid to voice your opinion. Participate in the conversation, and let others know that you are there and you have something to offer. Others might not appreciate your opinion openly but they do take a note of it. If you get a direct appreciation you will just be surprised at how important your views are to others. Speak up , you are going to gain….if not , no loss because it was your opinion.

2. Stand Up Straight: Standing up straight is not only better for your posture it also displays confidence. When you have a slumped appearance, you portray the image of someone who is uncomfortable, and depressed. Making a conscious decision to correct your posture will immediately transform your image.

3. Carry Yourself With Pride: Just as it is important to stand up straight, you should also walk with pride. Overcoming low self-esteem truly starts with your outward appearance. Walk tall, do not shuffle your feet, and put a spring in your step. This will give you an energetic appearance that others will perceive as confident and powerful.

4. Give Yourself A Pep Talk: Whenever you are feeling a little down, or lacking in self-confidence, give yourself a quick pep talk. Remind yourself of all of your great, unique qualities, and strengths.

Have self affirmation exercise…  Say “I am honest”  ….and shout YES, Say “ I am right”….and shout YES….SO on … any number of your traits.

5. Dress Well: When you look better, you feel better, and this principle applies to self-esteem as well. Take a bit of time to plan an outfit that is flattering, groom yourself, and always take pride in your looks.  Please do think about the season as well….

6. Get Some Exercise: Getting some regular exercise can really make in difference in overcoming low self-esteem. Not only will your physical appearance improve, which will make you feel better about yourself alone, you will also feel better due to the endorphins, the  “feel good chemicals” that are released during your workout.

7. Put Yourself Out There: You cannot truly work at overcoming low self-esteem if you do not put yourself out in the world. Do not hide in corners or take an excuse to do so or remain silent.

Compel yourself in a position where you have to speak up, and make your presence known.

8. Be Grateful For What You Have: Instead of dwelling on what you do not have, or what you think you want to have, focus on what you do have.

Family, love, health, and personal strengths like your charm, education, talents, your parents position if need be, are a few examples of what you should remind yourself to be grateful for everyday

9. Be Positive Toward Others: People with low self-esteem often tend to be quite negative. Practice being positive toward others by regularly offering complements to co-workers, friends, and family members.

Do not take part in behaviors such as gossiping, back biting, being jealous, discouraging, etc.

By making a commitment to break free of negativity, people will start to feel better around you and will genuinely want to spend time with you.

10. Help Others: Whenever and whenever you can, step up and take an active role with others. Offer help in any way that you can. Donate your time to become a mentor, or offer to help a fellow co-worker with a project. You will feel happier, have more confidence when approaching people, and in turn you will open yourself up to many new experiences.

These simple tips can do wonders to help build self-confidence and in overcoming low self-esteem. Try to complete one or two of these steps at a time so that you do not feel overwhelmed. Remember, this process will take little time and practice.  So relax and follow the tips each and every day for a period of time until it becomes a habit.

Thanks people,

God Bless you all.

Prof.  MRF